Monday, May 25, 2020

The Play Descartes Meditations On First Philosophy

In this paper, I will explain the role doubt plays in Descartes’s philosophy. Descartes’s Meditations on First Philosophy is a book containing six different meditations. The idea of doubt is seen through every meditation. The first meditation is composed almost completely of doubt. Descartes begins with explaining his problem. What he knows, or what he thought he knew, is based completely on false things. How can he continue to â€Å"know† these things if they are based on false assumptions? How can he go on knowing that anything he’d believed to be true could actually be false? Descartes then goes on to ask: then what is true? What is really true? He then decides that he will tear down his old â€Å"House of Knowledge† and build a new one based entirely on something that he can know is true without a doubt. Descartes’s tool that he uses to tear down his old house is doubt. He doesn’t use reasonable doubt, like we use today in courts. Descartes uses possible doubt. This means that he will disregard anything that could possibly be doubted in order to find something that cannot. If something can be doubted, Descartes believes that it can be false. After he finds something that cannot be doubted, then he can build a new house of knowledge and attempt to establish something firm and lasting in the sciences. So, Descartes begins to tear down his old house using this tool of doubt. He begins with the senses. He establishes that they are sometimes deceptive, that one could be insane, andShow MoreRelatedEssay about Biography f Rene Descartes864 Words   |  4 PagesRene Descartes was a brilliant man who was born on March 31st, 1596. He was born in a small town in the South of France, named La Haye. Rene Descartes lived from 1596-1650. He was the son of an intellectual councilor in Parliament, named Joachim Descartes. His mother, Jeanne Brochard, died when he was only 1 years old. Rene Descartes was 8 years old when he attended the Jesuit College of Henry VI in La Fleche. Rene studied science, grammar, mathematics and literature which led him to become a famousRead More Weaknesses of Descartes Arguments Essays1641 Words   |  7 PagesDescartes was incorrect and made mistakes in his philosophical analysis concerning understanding the Soul and the foundation of knowledge.   Yes, he coined the famous phrase, â€Å"I think therefore I am,† but the rest of his philosophical conclusions fail to be as solid (Meditation 4; 32). Descartes knew that if he has a mind and is thinking thoughts then he must be something that has the ability to think. While he did prove that he is a thinking thing that thinks (Meditation 3; 28), he was unable toRead MoreArguments For The Existence Of God1137 Words   |  5 Pagespe rsonal experience, and some on philosophy. Descartes offered two arguments towards the existence of God: an informal proof in the third meditation and the ontological proof in the fifth meditation. Descartes believed that with the employment of a rational method of inquiry which applied some of the methods of analytic geometry to the study of philosophy, our ability to attain certainty and validity about our knowledge would be greatly increased. For Descartes to include a second and distinct proofRead MoreThe Role of God in Descartes Epistemology1356 Words   |  5 Pages The presence of God, and more so the role god plays in our lives, has forever troubled philosophers. Some completely neglect the existence of god, others toy with the idea, and some use religion as the basis of their epistemology. Throughout this essay, I aim to critically examine the role of God in Descartes’ epistemology. Renà © Descartes’ epistemological contribution to western philosophy attempted to inaugurate a coherent method of questioning whereby knowledge of the world is attained independentlyRead MoreThe Dream Inside Of A Dream By Christopher Nolan1683 Words   |  7 PagesFinal Paper: Descartes The possibility of having a dream inside of a dream is an idea that has been discussed far and wide. However, before Inception came out in 2010 by director Christopher Nolan, many people in the modern world may not have ever considered this idea. Nonetheless, this idea of â€Å"a dream inside a dream† has been around since 1640, when Rene Descartes published Meditations. In Inception, Christopher Nolan uses Descartes ideas to enhance the storyline of his film. In this paperRead MoreThe Cartesian Circle is Wrong1586 Words   |  7 PagesRene Descartes meditations on the existence of God are very profound, thought-provoking, and engaging. From the meditations focused specifically on the existence of God, Descartes uses the argument that based on his clear and distinct perception that cannot be treated with doubt, God does exist. In the beginning of the third meditation, Descartes proclaims that he is certain he is a thinking thing based on his clear and distinct perception, and he couldn’t be certain unless all clear and distinctRead MoreEssay on The Concept of Power in International Politics1578 Words   |  7 Pagesfrom clear and distinct perceptions, and from simplicity, Descartes attempts to prove in â€Å"The Meditations† that the mind is distinct and separate from the body. This view is now known as Cartesian Dualism. In this essay I will outline Descartes’ main arguments, some of the criticisms of dualism, and my opinion as to which argument I perceive as the most convincing. The first argument in Cartesian Dualism is the Argument from doubt. Descartes starts by concluding that although he can conceive the possibilityRead MoreDescartes s Meditations On First Philosophy Essay2099 Words   |  9 PagesFirst published in Latin in 1641, Renà © Descartes philosophical study, entitled Meditations On First Philosophy, poses a question that continues to be both continously relevant, and hotly debated, in the field of philosophy. One of Descartes main queries in his meditations is as follows; how can we be fully assured that we know anything at all? Descarets theorises that, whilst not all knowledge may provide probable doubt, we can never be fully certain that there is no room for doubt, and if we cannotRead MorePhilosophy And The Modern Philosophy2035 Words   |  9 PagesUpon talking about the history of modern philosophy, one of the most important philosophers, who is considered as the father of the philosophy in this period, is Descartes. He was a pioneer for the movement of the new trend of philosophy and became a break between the medieval philosophy and the modern philosophy. Being educated in the environment of medieval philosophy, specifically in the school of Jesuits, Descartes received the system of scholastic philosophy as his foundation for making a new startRead MoreDescartes Meditations On First Philosophy1961 Words   |  8 PagesIn Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy, I will be considering if Descartes resolution to the â€Å"dreaming argumentâ₠¬  seems acceptable to trust. The First Meditation is where the â€Å"dreaming argument† is first mentioned and then gets resolved later in the Sixth Meditation and the Objections and Replies. I will be touching on the idea that our experiences could be dreaming experiences based on personal experiences and thoughts I have had regarding this topic. Then I will go on to explain how it is

Friday, May 15, 2020

There Is A Plethora Of Theories That Can Be Employed To

There is a plethora of theories that can be employed to explain crime but none is more applicable and relevant in my mind than the theory that A neighborhood or any form of A location is more than if not as much of A catalyst for crime in that area coupled with the deterioration of the educational system leads to A cycle of insurmountable poverty that in turn leads to crime. Crime is A direct product of poverty. Where there’s an impoverished population with almost nowhere to turn there’s a rise reason for crime to be present in that area. Coming from A city where the education system has failed so many people such as Baltimore I know what it’s like to witness people who lack the knowledge confidence in their city back themselves into A†¦show more content†¦He even went as far as describing those individuals who are born to eventually become criminals with specific anatomical features such as â€Å"sloping forehead, ears of unusual size, asymmetry of t he face, prognathism, excessive length of arms, asymmetry of the cranium and other physical stigmata. Specific criminals, such as thieves, rapists, and murderers, could be distinguished by specific characteristics that â€Å"born† criminals had less sensibility to pain and touch; more acute sight; a lack of moral sense, including an absence of remorse; more vanity, impulsiveness, vindictiveness, and cruelty; and other manifestations, such as a special criminal argot and the excessive use of tattooing. In closing I oppose these theories is firstly due in part to the fact that in the case of Lombroso s theory he’s basically trying to predict A future of crime for people based on inherited traits that can’t be changed or altered in any way possible and that their just â€Å"born primitive†. And on top of all of he firmly believed that just these traits alone basically predetermined what your life would end up inevitably being stating that â€Å"A person who is the criminal type cannot refrain from committing crime unless he lives under exceptionally favorable circumstances.† This throws me off because I alone much like most people have at least one recollection of someone who came from unfavorable circumstances and made A successful life for themselves despiteShow MoreRelatedThe Decline in the Rate of Unemployment Is Due to Adverse Factors in the United States Economy1360 Words   |  6 Pageswas a drop in unemployment rate is that the labor force declined by 312,000. In macro economics, labor force is defined as the actual people who are available for work. This includes the employed and unemployed. Retrospectively, the drop in labor force indicates a drop in the summative value of unemployed and employed population. Izzo (2013) posits that the indication of the decline in unemployment was a long term discouragement and loss of hope of the labor force. Consequently, people are not willingRead MoreThe Inequality And Health Care 1107 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction The United States is world renowned for having the best health care if not the most accessible. Citizens have at their disposal a plethora of hospitals, physicians, and therapists to improve their well-being. Statistical data was taken back in 2010 under the Central Texas Region and studied health care coverage and income in regards to the community. The data displayed in the surveys heavily suggest that income/ health in general have a high correlation. The issue that arose with theRead MoreChild Development By John W.867 Words   |  4 Pagesfoundation on the science of child development, looking at the theories and the psychologists behind them. Figure 2.12 offers an at a glance comparison table of all five types of theories – their methodologies and problems. The opening story in this chapter about the lives of Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget highlights how an individual’s experiences impact on the path they will take in life (as is shown in their two very different theories), a pertinent point to make at the outset of this book. ResearchRead MoreApplication Of Leadership Theory Paper1606 Words   |  7 PagesApplication of Leadership Theory Paper Ethical Leadership in the workplace has a tremendous impact and influence on people who are following the leader. Therefore, ethical leadership is the ability, to consistently examine oneself in terms of values, behaviors, and conduct in leading people, within an organization. It is important to note, that ethical leadership has the ability to influence other people, attitudes and a leader also has the ability, to transform people, in unique ways, by settingRead MoreMisogynistic Perspective In Lolita879 Words   |  4 PagesCritic Robert R. Kirsch describes Lolita as a ‘savage satire on the inadequacy of psychological realism.’ As Humbert’s nympholepsy is a primary focus of the novel, human behaviour is a common concern for critics. Thus, Lolita has been subjected to a plethora of psychoanalytical readings. For instance, Elizabeth Dipple, professor of English at Northwestern University, argues that Lolita follows Humbert’s journey from ‘narrow sexua l obsession to moral apprehension.’ Upon initial interpretation, my strongRead MoreClassroom Use Of Technology Has Exploded Over The Past Few Years851 Words   |  4 Pagesmodern classrooms utilize at least a few different types of technology. Laptops and computers, tablets, smartphones, interactive boards, and other learning devices have become integral to the education system. In 1983, Dr. Howard Gardner proposed a theory of multiple intelligences. Gardner, a professor of education at Harvard, theorized that an individual’s intelligence cannot simply be defined by a simple IQ test. Instead, he believed that there are several different types of intelligence, includingRead MoreRobert Nardelli s Leadership Style1338 Words   |  6 Pagesleadership style that bordered on the edge of being considered unethical and was considered by many as not being beneficial for the company overall. By evaluating Robert Nardelli’s leadership style against known leadership theories such as trait, behavioral, situational and contingency theories it is easy to dissect his leadership style and make a final decision as to how ethical he was as a leader. Robert Nardelli took over as CEO of Home Depot during a time when the housing market was finally coming backRead MoreDoes Democracy Work?856 Words   |  4 Pagesother political system, it is subject to a plethora of flaws. For instance, it is no secret that voters tend to make illogical decisions – not out of sheer malice, but as a result of being wrongly informed. Politicians also make erroneous choices, whether they do so because they are dishonest or simply out of touch with the true will of their constituents. Further, anyone who has studied the government of a parliamentary democracy knows gerrymandering can have a powerful say in determining electionsRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effects On Society1337 Words   |  6 Pagesmedia profile (Baer, 2014), it makes sense. Facebook, the most popular social media platform has 864 million people log onto its website every day (Noyes, 2014), without question, social media is a relevant part of many individual’s lives. Th ere is a plethora of social media sites available with a variety of functions. Some sites are meant for strictly sharing photos, some allow for anonymous communication, others are meant for building professional connections and some even allow for dating. For referenceRead MoreThe Decision For And Against Privatization Of Public Enterprises1180 Words   |  5 Pagesshould be priced prior to cross-subsidization. While there is a plethora of pricing strategies that businesses employ, your pricing will depend on the goals of your business and the market. Because your profits will need to cover all of your expenses, your pricing will need to reflect your product cost, operating expenses, rent, site maintenance, payroll costs and loan interest fees, along with many other factors. Cross subsidization can also take the shape of increasing the price of a particular product

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Descartes Meditations On First Philosophy - 1961 Words

In Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy, I will be considering if Descartes resolution to the â€Å"dreaming argument† seems acceptable to trust. The First Meditation is where the â€Å"dreaming argument† is first mentioned and then gets resolved later in the Sixth Meditation and the Objections and Replies. I will be touching on the idea that our experiences could be dreaming experiences based on personal experiences and thoughts I have had regarding this topic. Then I will go on to explain how it is possible to tell which state you are in from what Descartes has stated in his meditations and the experiences that have helped me to conclude this debatable matter. I believe that Descartes’s resolution is an adequate and in this paper I will explain why. The First Meditation is where Descartes first introduces his â€Å"dreaming argument† in the Meditations on the First Philosophy. Descartes explained how he was convinced that when he was dreaming, he was sensing real objects. He was almost positive that he was awake and sitting by the fire, but then later realizes he was dreaming, although he was fully convinced it was real experience he had. Descartes tell us that this sensation he had felt could be dream images but then mentions how even dream images are created from waking experience, an example being a painting. When a painter is making an imaginary creature, like a mermaid, the parts or this mermaid are taken from real life things like a woman and a fish and put together creatingShow MoreRelatedDescartes Meditations On First Philosophy807 Words   |  4 PagesConner Ruhl Professor Copley Philosophy 1000C 4 May 2015 Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy Rene Descartes was the first great philosopher of the modern era, He had a new approach which was focused on scientific and mathematical truths. Descartes came to reject the scholastic tradition, one of which he was educated, due to his pursuit of mathematical and scientific truth. Much of Descartes work was done to secure advancement of human knowledge through the use of the natural sciencesRead MoreDescartes Meditations On First Philosophy1079 Words   |  5 PagesThroughout Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes argues for the ideas and philosophical beliefs behind skepticism. In his writings, he describes the fallibility and importance of the body of man and through extension the senses with which we observe the world. This paper will first show that within Descartes’ writings the body is an extension of the mind. Secondly, this paper will prove that the senses are a false form of understanding which leads to the deception of the mind. FinallyR ead MoreDescartes Meditations On First Philosophy1318 Words   |  6 PagesPhilosophical Questions November 2, 2017 Cogito Ergo Sum Descartes Meditations on First Philosophy and his questioning of our existence in reality is a question which philosophers have tackled throughout time. Cogito ergo sum or I think therefore I am, a phrase brought about by Descartes is the backbone of his whole philosophy of our existence in reality. As long as we are thinking things, we exist. When we look at this approach to our existence we must first deny that any sensory data that we receive is believableRead MoreDescartes Meditations Of First Philosophy857 Words   |  4 PagesChristopher Joao Philosophy- 201 Mr. Jurkiewicz 4 March 2016 Descartes’ - Meditation #2 Rene Descartes was a French philosopher born in 1596. He is considered by many the father of modern philosophy and continues to have tremendous influence in the philosophical world to this day. The book, Meditations of First Philosophy, consist of six meditations and describes one meditation per day for six days. In meditation two, he claims that we have better knowledge of our own minds than of the physicalRead MoreDescartes Meditations On First Philosophy1264 Words   |  6 PagesDescartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy is a first-person record of Descartes’ descent into the bowels of disbelief, in order to eradicate all flawed belief from his life. In his first meditation, Descartes explains his argument for universal doubt, which leads him to doubt every truth he has ever established. Even the veracity of his sense perception is doubtful, as he renders those perceptions useless by arguing that in dreams, sense perceptions create the wildest of fantasies that can not beRead MoreDescartes Meditations On First Philosophy1712 Words   |  7 PagesDescartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy (1641) contains six Meditations. In the first two of these Descartes addresses doubt and certainty. By the end of the second Meditation Descartes establishes the possibility of certainty by concluding that he is a â€Å"thinking thing† and that this is beyond doubt. Having established the possibility of certainty, Descartes attempts to prove the existence of God. The argument he presents in the Third Meditation for the existence of God has been nicknamed theRead MoreDescartes Meditations On First Philosophy1536 Words   |  7 Pagesdid I formerly think I was? A man, of course. But what is a man?† (Descartes 340). This question that Descartes addresses in Meditations on First Philosophy is important because it outlines his core philosophical view in his work. His philosophy primarily focuses on dualism, which is the concept that there is another world that exists with ideal forms and is separate from the world of perception. The part of dualism that Descartes focuses his work on is the distinction between the soul and the bodyRead MoreDescartes Meditation On First Philosophy943 Words   |  4 Pages In the third meditation of Descartes Meditation on First Philosophy, Descartes argues that his idea of God must have come from God himself. One can also wonder whether that very own argument could also apply when Descartes has an idea of the Evil Demon. In this paper, I will argue that Descartes would not think that his having an idea of the Evil Demon proves that the Evil Demon exists. In his paper, Descartes was trying to find the source of his idea of God in order to prove that GodRead MoreDescartes Meditations On First Philosophy1080 Words   |  5 PagesRene Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy, God is not mentioned until the third meditation. Descartes point of view on God simply claims his existence through the act of being. According to his claim, God must, essentially, exist as well as being an outcome of His own creation. Descartes was greatly interested in the idea that God’s being promoted an external force that controlled all beings that supported his presence. Descartes declarations, presented in his Meditations on First PhilosophyRead MoreDescartes Meditations On First Philosophy922 Words   |  4 PagesIn Rene Descartes’ excerpt, Meditations on First Philosophy, he proclaims, â€Å"It is beyond question that I shall reach the truth if I think hard enough about the things that I perfectly understand, keeping them sep arate from all the other matters in which my thoughts are more confused and obscure† ( §104). When Descartes made this statement in his fourth meditation, what was he conjecturing by the term â€Å"perfect?† According to the standard interpretation, perfect encompasses all required or desirable

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

For A Crush free essay sample

When I look back four years ago, I am simply astonished by what I’ve achieved linguistically. Four years ago, writing this essay would have been inconceivable; four years ago, the only English words I knew were ‘hello’, ‘yes’ and ‘no’. Four years ago, applying to an American university would never have skimmed my mind. To every story, there is a beginning: Mine starts when my father, upon a nice sunny day, suddenly decided to enroll me in an American high-school. Moving from Congo to Morocco had already been an ordeal and here was my father, putting me in another situation of hardship. When he announced his decision to me, I tried to give him my best questioning look, as if to inform him that he was going insane. â€Å"I’m a French-speaker!† my eyes yelled though my mouth stayed shut, sealed by a perpetual sense of fear for the man. We will write a custom essay sample on For A Crush or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page However, my dear father was too riveted in his new folly to notice. I tried to seek support in my mother but it seemed my father’s enthusiasm had convinced her. â€Å"Learning English will offer you many opportunities† my father preached. â€Å"The best way to learn is to be in an English environment†. Despite this zeal my father was displaying towards my brothers and I going to an American school, I still was skeptical. Plus, at that time, I could care less about the opportunities a language would offer me. However, the master of the house had taken his decision and I had to abide to it. Summer passed in a blink and as the first day of school approached, I felt more and more stressed about it all. How would I manage being in a school where most of the people wouldn’t understand me? I was mad at my parents for setting me into this trap; into this land of perdition. How would I manage to communicate and make new friends? In my small thirteen year-old brai n, schemes of revenge against my parents sprouted: Play dumb and not try at all. If I could prove to my parents that being in an American school wasn’t beneficial for me, perhaps would they put me back in a regular French school? It is on that revolted note that I started my first year at American Academy Casablanca. Unexpectedly, being on a different system of education wasn’t terrible at all. Most of the students spoke both French and English and would help me translate what I wanted to say and what the teachers were saying. My brothers loved it too. It was something different that appealed to them. However, I didn’t want to give up on my plan. I made no effort in acquiring new language skills and wasn’t planning on doing any†¦ until I met her. Her name was Amna and she was a Pakistani girl. When I first met her, I was immediately charmed. She had so much kindness and warmth in her that I simply wanted to be her friend†¦ or more. However, so mething was wrong: I couldn’t communicate. This changed my perspective of being in an American school and of speaking English in general. I hated myself because I couldn’t speak English and more because I couldn’t speak to her! My inability to express myself in English rendered me speechless in front of her. The best move I could manage was an extra-kindly smile and she would only answer that with her warm and kind grins. This tore me. I became jealous at the other students that could speak both French and English; I wanted to be like them! Books, dictionaries, CDs and DVDs! I bought them all. It had to happen; I had to master English! My decision was taken and I fought to make my resolution come true. My parents were all happy and supportive and I didn’t think of my father as fool anymore. He was right: English could open many opportunities. And at that time, the opportunity I wanted to have was to talk to this girl. After a semester, my English started to improve and the more I learned about it, the more I became fascinated by it. English was beautiful, I realized. I liked it. As I became more and more fluent in it, I started to converse with Amna and we became great friends. In getting to know Amna, I discovered a very intelligent and well-educated girl whose English flowed perfectly into beautiful sentences. The simple fact of being her friend challenged me. I passed from wanting to be able to converse with her to wanting to be better than her. Because of Amna, I pushed myself harder, practiced even more in order to reach her level. Amna has been the propellant of my passion for the English language. We still are great friends and she yet knows the impact she’s had on me. In a way, it is thanks to her that I am able to write this paper. When I reflect on the past, it is with a smile that I discern what one could do for a crush.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Gender As A Socially Constructed Accomplishment1 essays

Gender As A Socially Constructed Accomplishment1 essays Gender As A Socially Constructed Accomplishment Gender is a very strange topic in todays society. Many people dont know what to do with people who are transvestites or transsexuals and they often times hate them because they are different. People always think that there can only be two types of gender: masculine and feminine. People also feel that these genders most always correspond to a persons sex. So if the person is a male, then most people wouldnt accept that person into society if they acted feminine. For human beings there is no essential femaleness and maleness, femininity or masculinity, womanhood, or manhood, but once gender is ascribed, the social order constructs and holds individuals to strongly gendered norms and expectations. Individuals may vary on many of the components of gender any may shift genders temporarily or permanently, but they must fit into the limited number of gender statuses their society recognizes. (Lorber, Night To His Day: The Social Construction of Gender, For Individuals, Gender Means Sameness, Page 463) ...a defining feature of reality construction is to see our world as being the only possible one. (Kessler Many people dont realize that gender is a socially constructed accomplishment. People make up methods in their heads about ways that people should be and if one doesnt act they way the other person deems that one should, then they do not fit into that persons reality. Every society classifies people as girl and boy children... (Lorber, Night To His Day: The Social Construction of Gender, Page 460) People always try to guess what gender a person is. If one doesnt know and is unsure of anothers gender than they keep on looking at them trying to find clues on about that persons g...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Despite the criticisms often levelled at the Community institutions Essay

Despite the criticisms often levelled at the Community institutions and their powers to legislate, it should be remembered that ultimate power still lies with t - Essay Example The legal scheme said to be designed by the Treaty at the outset has been assessed as having shortfalls in its objective of ensuring that the EC law be properly applied by the Member States. Article 169 procedures as a legal instrument in fighting against all the failures to fulfill obligations accordingly is not appropriate. This implies the need to create additional means to enforce and supervise the EC law (Gil Ibà ¡Ãƒ ±ez, 1997). To date, the Community and its underlying legal order can only hold on if that legal order is safeguarded and complied with and the Community law directly applied, with its primacy over national law (ABC of community law, 2004). For all its imperfections, however, the European Community legal order is said to have greatly helped in solving the political, economic and social problems of the Member States (ABC of community law, 2004). But there is yet the tag and pull when it comes to location of power in most aspects. Different institutions cooperate and govern the European Union and the most important of these are the Council, the Commission, the European Parliament and the Court of Justice. (EU Law, n.d.). With its own set of legislation, the European Community also has the laws of its member states. EC Law is concerned with treaties, regulations, and decisions of the European Court of Justice (Ibid). Made within the part of the European Union called the European Communities (EC), the EC Law is only the legislation that is applicable, hence called EC law. Based on the Treaties, it is the fundamental rules of the EU serving as agreements between the Member States. EC law comprises four different fields, namely primary law (the Treaties and the accession treaties of the new Member States), secondary law (all existing legal acts accepted by institutions of the European Union), international agreements between the European Union and